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What Is VO2 Max? Here’s The Low Down (And How To Improve Yours)

10th March 2022

10th March 2022

By Beth Shelper

Vo2? No, it’s not that haircare brand that you see on the supermarket shelves. It’s all to do with your oxygen and fitness levels. Yes, really.

What is Vo2?

Simply, Vo2 is not a thing, but more accurately, a measurement.

A measurement of the maximum amount of oxygen your body can use during exercise, to be exact. This measurement is also sometimes referred to by other names, namely ‘peak oxygen uptake’ and ‘maximal aerobic capacity’.

One of the most important things to remember when it comes to Vo2 is that there is no “normal max Vo2”, so when or if you work out your maximum Vo2, there is no such thing as a "good Vo2 max".

Why is your Vo2 max important?

Vo2 is a common measurement that athletes consider, particularly when training for an upcoming event. You don’t have to be an up-and-coming Olympian to work out your max Vo2, though, and it’s a great way to determine your general fitness levels, which is a worthwhile exercise to do if you are at the start of a fitness journey and are keen to measure your progress.

A person’s individual Vo2 maximum is particularly important to know, as the greater your vo2 max, the more oxygen someone’s body can inhale, and therefore the greater amount of exercise you can complete.

Basically, in laymen terms, the higher your Vo2 max, the higher your fitness levels.

As above, knowing your Vo2 max and being aware of this measurement is important for a number of reasons, but some integral reasons to measure this metric and keep an eye on your maximal aerobic capacity include providing the athlete with the ability to:

  • Track overall fitness improvement
  • Train for sports performance and improvement
  • Improve heart health
  • Reveal underlying cardiovascular functioning
  • Monitor overall health

How can you measure your (or someone else’s) peak oxygen uptake  

Considering how useful knowing your Vo2 max can be, the good news is that there are a couple of ways that you can measure your peak oxygen uptake, and the method that you adopt will most likely depend on your level of sporting.

  • Peak oxygen uptake measurement method #1

The first and most likely way to measure your Vo2 maximum if you are an athlete or professional sportsperson is through visiting a lab.

Whilst this sounds slightly on the medicinal side, when trying to calculate a person’s Vo2 maximum in a lab, the observer will ask the athlete to perform an exercise (most likely running on a treadmill) whilst masked, so that their oxygen levels can be measured over a certain period of time.

  • Peak oxygen uptake measurement method #2

On the other hand, if you’re not someone that trains professionally, don’t worry – you can still work out your peak oxygen uptake so that you can learn how to improve your Vo2 max, too.

This method doesn’t seem as ‘official’ as this doesn’t require the above lab-style set up, but you can pretty easily work out your Vo2 max through the use of something that many of us already have: a fitness watch.

Most popular fitness watches available on the market these days offer the functionality of measuring oxygen levels, with Fitbits and Apple Watches springing to mind.

If you’re interested in working out this metric so that you can crack on and learn how to improve your Vo2 max, and want to get yourself a handy Vo2 max calculator, check out our guide on the hottest fitness watches on the market. There are some pretty great options out there.

Here’s how to improve your Vo2 max

Now we’ve identified the link between Vo2 max and exercise, and you’ve learned how to measure your own, you’re probably wondering how to improve your Vo2 max for the benefit of your physical performance.

Don’t worry, we’re way ahead of you. And we’ve got the deets below.

The key to increasing your Vo2 max is down to the type of exercise you engage in. And by type of exercise, we mean both high intensity and low intensity workout styles.

  • High intensity interval training

High intensity interval training, often referred to as HIIT, describes a type of cardiovascular exercise that requires short bursts and intervals of exercise that range in length, starting at just 10 seconds all the way up to eight minutes.

Common forms of HIIT methods include:

When it comes to HIIT, it’s best to partake in this kind of exercise only a couple of times a week. These training types are intensive (the clue is in the name), so putting your body through this too often can do more damage than good.

On the other hand, if you do want to exercise on a daily basis – don’t panic. A great way to increase your Vo2 max is through low intensity training.

Great examples of low intensity training include:

  • Running
  • Biking
  • Hiking
  • Rowing


All in all, working out your Vo2 max is a definite worthwhile metric. Knowing this, particularly at the start of a fitness journey or when training for an upcoming event, is a great tool in your performance artillery.

If you’re not using it already, definitely get on that. ASAP.

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From the Bedroom to the Gym: Is Your Sex Life Affecting Your Workout Performance?
The relationship between sex and workout performance is one that’s long been debated by scientists and fitness fanatics alike. It’s complicated and multifaceted, so answering the question of whether your sex life is affecting your training is difficult. That said, today we’re going to take a look at a variety of evidence, both academic and anecdotal, as well as several different scenarios and at least try to reduce some of the mystery around the subject. First, it helps to understand what’s actually happening to the body, both physically and psychologically, during both activities.   The Effects of Sex on the Body Sexual activity causes several changes to occur in the body:   Physical Changes That Occur During Sex During sexual activity and the lead up to it, the human body undergoes a process known as the sexual response cycle. This is the case for both males and females, though the cycle can be highly individual and may not be the same each time for each person. Describing the full sexual response cycle is beyond the scope of this article, however it consists of 4 phases: Desire Arousal Orgasm Resolution Factors such as elevated heart rate, increased blood flow and pressure and heightened muscle tension all come into play. If you’d like to read about the sexual response cycle in more detail, check out this great article from Cleveland Clinic.   Psychological Changes That Occur During Sex Several psychological changes occur both during and after sex. Most notable are the release of endorphins and oxytocin, which are associated with improved mood and a better sense of wellbeing. These are also responsible for reduced stress levels, which brings a multitude of additional benefits that are of particular interest to those of us participating in regular training and exercise. Cortisol, the hormone responsible for stress, is catabolic in high levels, meaning it can cause the breakdown of lean tissue. So, whilst it is unclear whether sex itself affects workout performance, the reduction in stress levels it may bring is definitely beneficial for preserving our results!   The Effects of Exercise and Training on the Body Exercise and training also cause the body to undergo a number of changes. These occur both during and after the physical activity. There are in fact a number of similarities in changes that happen during exercise and sex:   Physical Changes That Occur During Exercise The physical changes that happen in the body vary based on the type of exercise being undertaken, however, there are some that are common to exercise in general: Increased heart rate Increased blood flow, especially to the muscles Faster, deeper breathing due to additional oxygen needs Heightened activity within the circulatory, respiratory, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems A full summary of the changes that occur within these systems can be found here. More aerobically demanding exercise will, of course, place greater emphasis on the circulatory and respiratory systems as well as causing fat to be metabolised as an energy source. Resistance training, which often relies more heavily on the lactate and creatine phosphate energy systems, instead promotes greater muscular and endocrine (hormone) activity. Note the common physical changes between sex and exercise here, as they do crossover!   Psychological Changes That Occur During Exercise The psychological changes that occur during exercise are similar to those experienced during sexual activity and are mostly related to the release of endorphins and other ‘feelgood’ hormones. These help to regulate mood, and it is common knowledge that frequent exercise and leading an active, healthy lifestyle promotes a feeling of wellbeing.   Does Sex Affect Our Workouts? This is where things become complicated. Though extensive studies have been done on the subject, the results of these have varied massively. We must also take into account the experience of individuals, and this anecdotal evidence again has huge variance. Let’s look at both:   Sex and Training: What the Science Says Scientific studies on the relationship between sex and training are contradictory at best. There’s no denying the positive benefits of both activities, particularly from a psychological perspective, but as for the effect of sex on actual performance in the gym the results are inconclusive. A study, published in April 2021, by Kirecci, Albayrak and co. examined the effects of sexual activity of 50 men in the 24 hours prior to training on lower body strength. The study measured effects by having the men perform 3 separate squat sessions, each at the same time of day. Each of these sessions occurred after participating in or abstaining from sexual activity the night before. The men performed 5 sets of 5 repetitions of their maximum squat weight during these sessions and the difference in weight lifted was observed. The study concluded that ‘sexual intercourse within 24 hours before exercise [has a] detrimental effect on lower extremity muscle force, which suggests that restricting sexual activity before a short-term activity may be necessary.’ Aside from this study, most others found either no notable relationship between sex and athletic performance. A meta-analysis of 9 crossover studies, conducted by Zavorsky and Brooks and published on 16 September 2022, confirms this. The analysis concluded that ‘The results demonstrate that sexual activity within 30 min to 24 h before exercise does not appear to affect aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal endurance, or strength/power.’ This is perhaps more notable, because these studies incorporated different types of exercise and were not restricted purely to a strength/power based activity like squats.   Anecdotal Evidence: What About the Experiences of Real Gym Goers? The anecdotal evidence is, as expected, highly individualised. However, there tends to be a bias against the results of most studies, particularly in those participating in sports involving strength and aggression. For example, many fighters claim that they perform better when they abstain from sex in the days leading up to a contest. Similarly, bodybuilding forums are full of debate on this topic and many claim they note a significant decrease in motivation to train at maximum intensity after sexual activity. It has been hypothesised that this may be due to a downregulation in testosterone production after sex; during orgasm the mineral zinc is released in the body and this is also a precursor for natural testosterone production in the body and may, therefore, provide some reasoning as to the experience of many trainees.   Key Takeaways The relationship between sex and workout performance will always be a complicated one. The effects of one on the other in terms of physical fitness and, in particular, mental wellbeing, are clear, but when it comes to actual performance this appears to be highly individual. We’d advise doing what feels best for you but not worrying too much about it. Instead, prioritise your nutrition and make sure you’re fuelling your workouts properly. While you’re here, why not take a look at the Innermost range? We’re proud to be completely transparent about the ingredients in our products and we always ensure they’re of the highest quality. Check us out, and be sure to get in touch if you have any questions! Read more