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Research Into Hormetic Stress Shows How You Can Improve Your Exercise Routine

1st April 2022

1st April 2022

By Beth Shelper

Have you ever heard of the phrase “what doesn’t kill you makes you stronger”? Well, that most definitely applies here.

Whilst we’re all too aware of the impact of stresses, both in terms of acute stressors or those that are considered more chronic, every single one of us can discuss and reflect on times of stress in our lives.

Whilst there are genuine biological reasons for stress, of which we will go into in this article, did you know that there are more than just these immediately obvious types of stress that we are aware of, that we go through in life? Well, in fact, that we go through every day.

One of those is that of hormetic stress, or what is known as hormesis.

What is hormesis?

Hormesis is a state that describes the bodies natural reaction or response following exposure. What we mean by exposure, is of that to a product, with examples including supplementations, foods or drinks such as alcohol, or to a state, such as heat or pressure.

It’s not just a state that describes this exposure, though, but a description of the bodies response to a certain dose of the substance, condition or environment. If anything, it’s great proof that that so called ‘healthy stress’ that many health and wellness experts talk about. Make sense?

What is hormetic stress?

In order to determine what exactly hormetic stress is, it’s first important to know what stress is in general, we think. By nature, stress as a state refers to the disruption of the body from it’s normal state.

Taking into consideration of the above, hormetic stress describes the so-called ‘ideal’ exposure to the hormetic stressor.

Achieving hormetic stress can be a difficult and potentially difficult process, depending on the stressor. For example, if the stressor is a poison, under exposure to this particular stressor could leave the body entirely unchanged, but overexposure to such poison could be hugely detrimental, or even fatal.

Examples of common instances of hormetic stress

Whilst poison is a pretty extreme example (but one that was kind of necessary to adequately explain the 4-1-1), there are plenty of more common examples of substances or environmental conditions that lead the body to engage in what we describe as this hormetic stress.

Common hormetic stressors include:

Why do we monitor hormetic stress levels and exposure?

The good news is that not all stress can have the same consequences as taking too much poison. The even better news is that healthy stress can have a lot of health and wellness benefits, and for that reason, many people actually voluntarily put themselves under this hormetic stress to improve their performance.

Logically, the body’s natural response to stress is to ramp up the defence and repair whatever is happening in an attempt to rapidly bring your body back to balance (otherwise known as homeostasis). So, with that in mind, common examples of this include engaging in strength training to increase muscle strength.

Think about it, when you up your weights or increase your sets, you’re stretching your muscle tissue in order to make them adapt, and ultimately become stronger. This is a great example of hormetic stress.

Studies into the effectiveness of hormetic stress

The science backs up this usage of healthy stress, too. That’s what we like to hear.

Nutrition Research Reviews published a variety of research into hormetic stress with extensive reviews of the relationship between nutrition, hormetic stress and health.

Examining the beneficial nature of hormesis, and the variety of research into the subject, the journal explains the impact of exposure to hormetic stress situations and how this repeated exposure (through regular exercise, for example), leads to an adaptation by the body that enables any risk of potential harm to be reduced, and thus, allowing performance to advance.

Furthermore, hormetic stress has been noted as an effective methodology in the treatment of some inflammation. One key example of this is the hormetic stress response experienced following specific heat exposure, which triggers heat shock. The investigation found that usage of hormetic stress and hormesis is effective in the inflammation treatment, supporting the idea that engagement in this method can have great impact on health and performance, too.

References

  • Lindsay, D. G. (2005). Nutrition, hormetic stress and health. Nutrition research reviews18(2), 249-258. Click here.
  • Mattson, M. P. (2008). Hormesis defined. Ageing research reviews7(1), 1-7. Click here.
  • Gálvez, I., Torres-Piles, S., & Ortega-Rincón, E. (2018). Balneotherapy, immune system, and stress response: a hormetic strategy?. International journal of molecular sciences19(6), 1687. Click here.

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From the Bedroom to the Gym: Is Your Sex Life Affecting Your Workout Performance?
The relationship between sex and workout performance is one that’s long been debated by scientists and fitness fanatics alike. It’s complicated and multifaceted, so answering the question of whether your sex life is affecting your training is difficult. That said, today we’re going to take a look at a variety of evidence, both academic and anecdotal, as well as several different scenarios and at least try to reduce some of the mystery around the subject. First, it helps to understand what’s actually happening to the body, both physically and psychologically, during both activities.   The Effects of Sex on the Body Sexual activity causes several changes to occur in the body:   Physical Changes That Occur During Sex During sexual activity and the lead up to it, the human body undergoes a process known as the sexual response cycle. This is the case for both males and females, though the cycle can be highly individual and may not be the same each time for each person. Describing the full sexual response cycle is beyond the scope of this article, however it consists of 4 phases: Desire Arousal Orgasm Resolution Factors such as elevated heart rate, increased blood flow and pressure and heightened muscle tension all come into play. If you’d like to read about the sexual response cycle in more detail, check out this great article from Cleveland Clinic.   Psychological Changes That Occur During Sex Several psychological changes occur both during and after sex. Most notable are the release of endorphins and oxytocin, which are associated with improved mood and a better sense of wellbeing. These are also responsible for reduced stress levels, which brings a multitude of additional benefits that are of particular interest to those of us participating in regular training and exercise. Cortisol, the hormone responsible for stress, is catabolic in high levels, meaning it can cause the breakdown of lean tissue. So, whilst it is unclear whether sex itself affects workout performance, the reduction in stress levels it may bring is definitely beneficial for preserving our results!   The Effects of Exercise and Training on the Body Exercise and training also cause the body to undergo a number of changes. These occur both during and after the physical activity. There are in fact a number of similarities in changes that happen during exercise and sex:   Physical Changes That Occur During Exercise The physical changes that happen in the body vary based on the type of exercise being undertaken, however, there are some that are common to exercise in general: Increased heart rate Increased blood flow, especially to the muscles Faster, deeper breathing due to additional oxygen needs Heightened activity within the circulatory, respiratory, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems A full summary of the changes that occur within these systems can be found here. More aerobically demanding exercise will, of course, place greater emphasis on the circulatory and respiratory systems as well as causing fat to be metabolised as an energy source. Resistance training, which often relies more heavily on the lactate and creatine phosphate energy systems, instead promotes greater muscular and endocrine (hormone) activity. Note the common physical changes between sex and exercise here, as they do crossover!   Psychological Changes That Occur During Exercise The psychological changes that occur during exercise are similar to those experienced during sexual activity and are mostly related to the release of endorphins and other ‘feelgood’ hormones. These help to regulate mood, and it is common knowledge that frequent exercise and leading an active, healthy lifestyle promotes a feeling of wellbeing.   Does Sex Affect Our Workouts? This is where things become complicated. Though extensive studies have been done on the subject, the results of these have varied massively. We must also take into account the experience of individuals, and this anecdotal evidence again has huge variance. Let’s look at both:   Sex and Training: What the Science Says Scientific studies on the relationship between sex and training are contradictory at best. There’s no denying the positive benefits of both activities, particularly from a psychological perspective, but as for the effect of sex on actual performance in the gym the results are inconclusive. A study, published in April 2021, by Kirecci, Albayrak and co. examined the effects of sexual activity of 50 men in the 24 hours prior to training on lower body strength. The study measured effects by having the men perform 3 separate squat sessions, each at the same time of day. Each of these sessions occurred after participating in or abstaining from sexual activity the night before. The men performed 5 sets of 5 repetitions of their maximum squat weight during these sessions and the difference in weight lifted was observed. The study concluded that ‘sexual intercourse within 24 hours before exercise [has a] detrimental effect on lower extremity muscle force, which suggests that restricting sexual activity before a short-term activity may be necessary.’ Aside from this study, most others found either no notable relationship between sex and athletic performance. A meta-analysis of 9 crossover studies, conducted by Zavorsky and Brooks and published on 16 September 2022, confirms this. The analysis concluded that ‘The results demonstrate that sexual activity within 30 min to 24 h before exercise does not appear to affect aerobic fitness, musculoskeletal endurance, or strength/power.’ This is perhaps more notable, because these studies incorporated different types of exercise and were not restricted purely to a strength/power based activity like squats.   Anecdotal Evidence: What About the Experiences of Real Gym Goers? The anecdotal evidence is, as expected, highly individualised. However, there tends to be a bias against the results of most studies, particularly in those participating in sports involving strength and aggression. For example, many fighters claim that they perform better when they abstain from sex in the days leading up to a contest. Similarly, bodybuilding forums are full of debate on this topic and many claim they note a significant decrease in motivation to train at maximum intensity after sexual activity. It has been hypothesised that this may be due to a downregulation in testosterone production after sex; during orgasm the mineral zinc is released in the body and this is also a precursor for natural testosterone production in the body and may, therefore, provide some reasoning as to the experience of many trainees.   Key Takeaways The relationship between sex and workout performance will always be a complicated one. The effects of one on the other in terms of physical fitness and, in particular, mental wellbeing, are clear, but when it comes to actual performance this appears to be highly individual. We’d advise doing what feels best for you but not worrying too much about it. Instead, prioritise your nutrition and make sure you’re fuelling your workouts properly. While you’re here, why not take a look at the Innermost range? We’re proud to be completely transparent about the ingredients in our products and we always ensure they’re of the highest quality. Check us out, and be sure to get in touch if you have any questions!
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